What structure causes Equisetum spores to move?

What structure causes Equisetum spores to move?

Their motion is driven by four moisture-sensitive legs, or elaters, which curl when the moisture level changes. "It's very much like how human hair can curl when it's humid," explained Dr Marmottant.Sep 11, 2013

How does Equisetum disperse its spores?

Jumps occur when the spores suddenly thrust themselves after being tightly folded. They result in a very efficient dispersal: even spores jumping from the ground can catch the wind again, whereas non-jumping spores stay on the ground.Aug 13, 2013

What causes Equisetum spores to move?

The researchers used high speed cameras to find out how horsetail (Equisetum) spores dispersed. This revealed that the microscopic spores' "legs" curl and uncurl when the moisture levels change, causing them to appear to crawl around or even to spring from the ground.Sep 11, 2013

How does horsetail spread?

Because they're perennial, fast growing and spread quickly via underground runners, two or three harmless-looking horsetails can quickly overwhelm a large planted area. Once established, a patch of horsetails seems destined to remain there forever, because these plants are virtually indestructible.

What is the spore producing structure called for Equisetum or horsetail?

The strobili (spore-bearing reproductive structures) are conelike, with dense, 6-sided plates apparent on the outer surface.

What type of spores does Equisetum produce?

Equisetum plants (horsetails) reproduce by producing tiny spherical spores that are typically 50 µm in diameter. The spores have four elaters, which are flexible ribbon-like appendages that are initially wrapped around the main spore body and that deploy upon drying or fold back in humid air.Aug 13, 2013

Does horsetail reproduce with spores?

Like ferns, field horsetail does not produce flowers or seeds. This species reproduces by spores and more commonly by creeping rhizomes and tubers. They have two separate stages in their life cycle. The one is the spore producing stage, which includes the vegetative stems.

Where are the spores produced in Equisetum?

The spores are borne under sporangiophores in strobili, cone-like structures at the tips of some of the stems. In many species the cone-bearing shoots are unbranched, and in some (e.g. E. arvense, field horsetail) they are non-photosynthetic, produced early in spring.

Where are spores produced in horsetails?

Reproduction. Like all plants, Equisetum exhibits alternation of generations. They have a easily visible sporophyte and hard-to-find gametophyte. Spores are produced in 'cones', terminal portions of stems where certain cells undergo meiosis to produce a 'tetrad' of four spores.

Where are spores located in the strobilus of Equisetum?

Spores are produced within the sporangia. The sporangia are borne on the sporangiophores which are aggregated into a compact structure termed strobilus or cone or sporangiferous spike.

What is the function of elaters in Equisetum?

The elaters function is to increase dispersal because they push the spores out of the plant and increase the aerodynamic drag in the wind [11].Nov 7, 2013