Are there any human health applications for camptothecin?
CPT, an alkaloid extract, displays anticancer activity as an inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase I. This action prevents resealing of DNA following DNA synthesis, halting nucleic acid synthesis and cell death. Experimentally, cyclosert-camptothecin is an effective anticancer agent for treating human colon tumor xenografts.
What does camptothecin do to cells?
Camptothecin binds to the topoisomerase I and DNA complex resulting in a ternary complex, stabilizing it and preventing DNA re-ligation and therefore causes DNA damage which results in apoptosis.Sep 11, 2007
What does camptothecin do to cancer cells?
CPT, an alkaloid extract, displays anticancer activity as an inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase I. This action prevents resealing of DNA following DNA synthesis, halting nucleic acid synthesis and cell death.
How does camptothecin block the activity of topoisomerase?
Camptothecin-derived TopI inhibitors function by forming a ternary complex with TopI-DNA and are able to stack between the base pairs that flank the cleavage site due to their planar structure. Normal cells have multiple DNA checkpoints that can initiate the removal of these stabilized complexes, preventing cell death.
What does camptothecin block?
Since camptothecin is known to be a specific inhibitor of type I DNA topoisomerase, we suggest that this enzyme is acting very near the replication forks.
How is topoisomerase inhibited?
Topoisomerase inhibitors block the ligation step of the cell cycle, which generates DNA single- and double-strand breaks, leading to apoptotic cell death. Topoisomerase I inhibitors include irinotecan, topotecan, and camptothecin, and topoisomerase II inhibitors include etoposide, doxorubicin, and epirubicin.
What prevents topoisomerase?
Topoisomerases are enzymes that are abundantly present in our cells and can temporarily cut and rejoin our DNA to remove knots and tangles that form during important biological processes.Mar 19, 2020
How does camptothecin cause apoptosis?
Camptothecin caused apoptosis in SiHa cells by inducing mitochondrial membrane permeability changes that lead to the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased Bcl-2 levels, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, formation of reactive oxygen species and depletion of GSH.
How does camptothecin cause DNA damage?
Camptothecin selectively poisons topoisomerase I by trapping topoisomerase I cleavage complexes, which correspond to enzyme-linked DNA breaks (for a review see Pommier, 1996). Camptothecin induces replication-dependent DNA lesions, and arrests cells in the S and G2 phase of the cell cycle.
What is the mechanism of action of camptothecin?
The primary mechanism of cell killing by CPT is S-phase-specific killing through potentially lethal collisions between advancing replication forks and topo-I cleavable complexes.
How do drugs induce apoptosis?
Factors that were critical in drug-induced apoptosis were activation of caspases, with caspase-8 being activated by diverse drugs in a FADD-independent manner. Certain drugs also demonstrated some dependence on FADD in the induction of cell death. Caspase-9 was activated more selectively by chemotherapeutic agents.Feb 25, 2002