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What is arbitrary test? I know a concept vaguely, but could you please describe?

I know a concept vaguely, but could you please describe?

english is not my first language, so in plain english please.

if someone shows a child red light and green light,
if the child choose green light, then the experimenter gives the child a toy.

in a such test, the experimenter do not show same things
but show the child arbitrary things

in this context what is 'arbitrary'?

in other words

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