Science & Mathematics » Physics » Why do atoms have electrons outside and protons inside?? why protons are not stay in outside and electrons are not stay inside? Say simply?

# Why do atoms have electrons outside and protons inside?? why protons are not stay in outside and electrons are not stay inside? Say simply?

• It's because the nucleus (protons and neutrons) is thousands of times heavier
than the electrons.

Like (for example) the moon going round the earth.

In fact both objects are *moving around their centre of mass,***
The centre of mass is a point inside the nucleus. Look at this diagram https://www.scubageek.com/images/tides2....

The nucleus is going in tiny circles about a point inside Think of the nucleus as 'wobbling'.
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• Protons (and indeed neutrons) are subject to an extra force that electrons are not - the Strong Nuclear Force. This force is responsible for binding protons (and neurons) into the clumps that form the nucleus of an atom. Without this force, protons would repel each other by their positive charge and not form into such tiny clumps.

Conversely, electrons are governed just by their charge, which means they will never want to clump together. So they are attracted toward the proton clumps but repelled by each other. Thus, they arrange themselves to be simultaneously as close to the protons as possible and as far from each other as possible.

Added: It occurs to me that this doesn't really explain why for hydrogen a single electron surrounds a single proton, and I don't think there is a quick and simple explanation that doesn't cheat you to some extent.
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• A really good question. Let's think about the simplest case, hydrogen, which is just an electron bound to a single proton. So there's no strong nuclear force involved there, because the only nucleus is a single isolated proton.

Every particle has an anti-particle with opposite charge. There are heavy negative particles called anti-protons, and light positive particles called positrons, and you can bind them together into anti-hydrogen, and it still has the property that the heavy particle is the one in the middle and the light one is in a larger orbital around it.

So what is it about those nuclear particles? At least two things: the proton/anti-proton IS more than a thousand times heavier than the electron/positron, and they are made of constituent particles called quarks which give rise to the strong nuclear force. Those properties cause the atom to have the structure it does, even for a simple atom like hydrogen.
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• size. protons are huge compared to electrons so it seems, from an outside viewer, that the tiny electrons are zipping around the protons. That is not how it looks to the electron, of course.

It takes way less energy to move the electron than the much more massive proton, basically, so although the proton moves, it moves a lot less. Sort of like why the earth seems to go around the sun and not the other way around. The earth does not actually go around the sun, it goes around the center of mass of the sun-earth system, which is well within the inside of the sun, but it is not the center of the sun.

If the electrons were the massive particles, then they would be at the center. So, it is not the charge thing that matters, we could exist in a universe where the charges were reversed. But we don't.
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• You're asking a question many scientists remain unsure about for years, though the curiosity is appreciated, I am unable to answer this question. Sorry
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• If the electrons were on the inside, elements would not be able to bond in order to make compounds.
e.g.; water from hydrogen and oxygen.
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• Because protons are much heavier than electrons. They orbit each other around a common center of mass, but that means the protons hardly move and electrons do most of the orbiting. It is similar to the earth and sun orbiting each other.
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• In planetary motion The proton is like the sun it has a bigger mass,and the electron is like the earth it has a smaller mass. In order for the earth and the sun to maintain gravitational Energy rotational equilibrium.
the bigger mass moves slower than the smaller mass of the earth.Basically they are both rotating around each other relative to a fulcrum
.The electron and proton move in a similar way.
The proton has a smaller orbit while the electron has a bigger orbit.
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• Simply put MASS.
If you take the simplest atom, Hydrogen, then your question is not true.
both the proton and the electron orbit.
They orbit around the centre of mass of the system.
They are both outside the atom to that extent.
But the electron has less mass so it is further from the centre of mass and the proton is more massive so it is closer to the centre of mass.

Now consider an anti hydrogen atom.
With a heavy negative nucleus and a light positron orbiting.
The same arguments apply in reverse.

EVERYTHING orbits when you consider planetary motion. There really isn't an inside or an outside.
A BINARY star is where the masses of the two parts are fairly similar. Which isn't anything more than a specific case out of a more general set of masses.
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• Some things are the way they are simply because they are that way.
Don't argue with nature.
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